Class: RDF::Query

Inherits:
Object show all
Defined in:
vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb,
vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query/hash_pattern_normalizer.rb,
vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query/pattern.rb,
vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query/solution.rb,
vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query/solutions.rb,
vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query/variable.rb,
vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/sparql-35fb6f2e7092/lib/sparql/algebra/extensions.rb

Overview

An RDF basic graph pattern (BGP) query.

Named queries either match against a specifically named contexts if the name is an RDF::Resource or bound RDF::Query::Variable. Names that are against unbound variables match either default or named contexts. The name of false will only match against the default context.

Variable names cause the variable to be added to the solution set elements.

Examples:

Constructing a basic graph pattern query (1)

query = RDF::Query.new do
  pattern [:person, RDF.type,  FOAF.Person]
  pattern [:person, FOAF.name, :name]
  pattern [:person, FOAF.mbox, :email]
end

Constructing a basic graph pattern query (2)

query = RDF::Query.new({
  :person => {
    RDF.type  => FOAF.Person,
    FOAF.name => :name,
    FOAF.mbox => :email,
  }
})

Executing a basic graph pattern query

graph = RDF::Graph.load('etc/doap.nt')
query.execute(graph).each do |solution|
  puts solution.inspect
end

Constructing and executing a query in one go (1)

solutions = RDF::Query.execute(graph) do
  pattern [:person, RDF.type, FOAF.Person]
end

Constructing and executing a query in one go (2)

solutions = RDF::Query.execute(graph, {
  :person => {
    RDF.type => FOAF.Person,
  }
})

In this example, the default graph contains the names of the publishers of two named graphs. The triples in the named graphs are not visible in the default graph in this example.

# default graph
@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/

<http://example.org/bob>    dc:publisher  "Bob" .
<http://example.org/alice>  dc:publisher  "Alice" .

# Named graph: http://example.org/bob
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .

_:a foaf:name "Bob" .
_:a foaf:mbox <mailto:bob@oldcorp.example.org> .

# Named graph: http://example.org/alice
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .

_:a foaf:name "Alice" .
_:a foaf:mbox <mailto:alice@work.example.org> .

See Also:

Since:

Direct Known Subclasses

SPARQL::Client::Query

Defined Under Namespace

Classes: HashPatternNormalizer, Pattern, Solution, Solutions, Variable

Instance Attribute Summary (collapse)

Class Method Summary (collapse)

Instance Method Summary (collapse)

Constructor Details

- (Query) initialize(patterns = [], options = {}) {|query| ... } - (Query) initialize(patterns, options = {}) {|query| ... }

Initializes a new basic graph pattern query.

Overloads:

  • - (Query) initialize(patterns = [], options = {}) {|query| ... }

    Parameters:

    Options Hash (options):

    • :solutions (RDF::Query::Solutions) — default: Solutions.new
    • :context (RDF::Resource, RDF::Query::Variable, false) — default: nil

      Default context for matching against queryable. Named queries either match against a specifically named graphs if the name is an Resource or bound Variable. Names that are against unbound variables match either default or named graphs. The name of false will only match against the default context.

    • :name (RDF::Resource, RDF::Query::Variable, false) — default: nil

      Alias for :context.

    Yields:

    • (query)

    Yield Parameters:

    Yield Returns:

    • (void)

      ignored

  • - (Query) initialize(patterns, options = {}) {|query| ... }

    Parameters:

    Options Hash (options):

    Yields:

    • (query)

    Yield Parameters:

    Yield Returns:

    • (void)

      ignored

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 180

def initialize(*patterns, &block)
  @options  = patterns.last.is_a?(Hash) ? patterns.pop.dup : {}
  patterns << @options if patterns.empty?
  @variables = {}
  @solutions = Query::Solutions(@options.delete(:solutions))
  context = @options.fetch(:context, @options.fetch(:name, nil))
  @options.delete(:context)
  @options.delete(:name)

  @patterns  = case patterns.first
    when Hash  then compile_hash_patterns(HashPatternNormalizer.normalize!(patterns.first.dup, @options))
    when Array then patterns.first
    else patterns
  end

  self.context = context

  if block_given?
    case block.arity
      when 1 then block.call(self)
      else instance_eval(&block)
    end
  end
end

Instance Attribute Details

- (Hash) options (readonly)

Any additional options for this query.

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 139

def options
  @options
end

- (Array<RDF::Query::Pattern>) patterns (readonly)

The patterns that constitute this query.

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 127

def patterns
  @patterns
end

- (RDF::Query::Solutions) solutions (readonly)

The solution sequence for this query.

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 133

def solutions
  @solutions
end

- (Hash{Symbol => RDF::Query::Variable}) variables (readonly)

The variables used in this query.

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 121

def variables
  @variables
end

Class Method Details

+ (RDF::Query::Solutions) execute(queryable, patterns = {}, options = {}) {|query| ... }

Executes a query on the given queryable graph or repository.

Parameters:

Yields:

  • (query)

Yield Parameters:

Yield Returns:

  • (void)

    ignored

Returns:

See Also:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 92

def self.execute(queryable, patterns = {}, options = {}, &block)
  self.new(patterns, options, &block).execute(queryable, options)
end

+ (Solutions) Solutions + (Solutions) Solutions(solutions) + (Solutions) Solutions(array) + (Solutions) Solutions(*args)

Cast values as Solutions

Overloads:

  • + (Solutions) Solutions

    Returns Solutions.new()

    Returns:

  • + (Solutions) Solutions(solutions)

    Returns the argument

    Returns:

  • + (Solutions) Solutions(array)

    Returns the array extended with solutions

    Parameters:

    Returns:

    • (Solutions)

      returns the array extended with solutions

  • + (Solutions) Solutions(*args)

    Returns new solutions including the arguments, which must each be a Solution

    Parameters:

    Returns:

    • (Solutions)

      returns new solutions including the arguments, which must each be a Solution

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 111

def self.Solutions(*args)
  return args.first if args.length == 1 && args.first.is_a?(Solutions)
  args = args.first if args.first.is_a?(Array) && args.length == 1
  return Solutions.new(args)
end

Instance Method Details

- (RDF::Query) +(other)

Add patterns from another query to form a new Query

Parameters:

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 398

def +(other)
  Query.new(self.patterns + other.patterns)
end

- <<(pattern)

This method returns an undefined value.

Appends the given query pattern to this query.

Parameters:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 211

def <<(pattern)
  @patterns << Pattern.from(pattern)
  self
end

- (Boolean) ==(other)

Equivalence for Queries: Same Patterns Same Context

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/sparql-35fb6f2e7092/lib/sparql/algebra/extensions.rb', line 243

def ==(other)
  other.is_a?(RDF::Query) && patterns == other.patterns && context == context
end

- (RDF::IRI, RDF::Query::Variable) context

Scope of this query, if any

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 430

def context
  options[:context]
end

- (RDF::IRI, RDF::Query::Variable) context=(value)

Scope the query to named graphs matching value

Parameters:

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 424

def context=(value)
  options[:context] = value
end

- (Boolean) default?

Is this query scoped to the default graph?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 410

def default?
  options[:context] == false
end

- (RDF::Query) dup

Duplicate query, including patterns and solutions

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 454

def dup
  patterns = @patterns.map {|p| p.dup}
  patterns << @options.merge(:solutions => @solutions.dup)
  Query.new(*patterns)
end

- (Enumerator) each_solution {|solution| ... } Also known as: each

Enumerates over each matching query solution.

Yields:

  • (solution)

Yield Parameters:

Returns:

  • (Enumerator)

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 446

def each_solution(&block)
  @solutions.each(&block)
end

- (Boolean) empty?

Query has no patterns

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 436

def empty?
  patterns.empty?
end

- (RDF::Query::Solutions) execute(queryable, options = {}) {|solution| ... }

Executes this query on the given queryable graph or repository.

Named queries either match against a specifically named contexts if the name is an RDF::Resource or bound RDF::Query::Variable. Names that are against unbound variables match either detault or named contexts. The name of false will only match against the default context.

If the query nas no patterns, it returns a single empty solution as per SPARQL 1.1 Empty Group Pattern.

Parameters:

  • queryable (RDF::Queryable)

    the graph or repository to query

  • options (Hash{Symbol => Object}) (defaults to: {})

    any additional keyword options

Options Hash (options):

Yields:

  • (solution)

    each matching solution

Yield Parameters:

Yield Returns:

  • (void)

    ignored

Returns:

See Also:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 291

def execute(queryable, options = {}, &block)
  validate!
  options = options.dup

  # just so we can call #keys below without worrying
  options[:bindings] ||= {}

  # Use provided solutions to allow for query chaining
  # Otherwise, a quick empty solution simplifies the logic below; no special case for
  # the first pattern
  @solutions = Query::Solutions(options[:solutions] || Solution.new)

  # If there are no patterns, just return the empty solution
  if empty?
    @solutions.each(&block) if block_given?
    return @solutions
  end

  patterns = @patterns
  context = options.fetch(:context, options.fetch(:name, self.context))

  # Add context to pattern, if necessary
  unless context.nil?
    if patterns.empty?
      patterns = [Pattern.new(nil, nil, nil, :context => context)]
    elsif patterns.first.context.nil?
      patterns.first.context = context
    end
  end

  patterns.each do |pattern|

    old_solutions, @solutions = @solutions, Query::Solutions()

    options[:bindings].keys.each do |variable|
      if pattern.variables.include?(variable)
        unbound_solutions, old_solutions = old_solutions, Query::Solutions()
        options[:bindings][variable].each do |binding|
          unbound_solutions.each do |solution|
            old_solutions << solution.merge(variable => binding)
          end
        end
        options[:bindings].delete(variable)
      end
    end

    old_solutions.each do |solution|
      found_match = false
      pattern.execute(queryable, solution) do |statement|
        found_match = true
        @solutions << solution.merge(pattern.solution(statement))
      end
      # If this pattern was optional, and we didn't find any matches,
      # just copy it over as-is.
      if !found_match && pattern.optional?
        @solutions << solution
      end
    end

    #puts "solutions after #{pattern} are #{@solutions.to_a.inspect}"

    # It's important to abort failed queries quickly because later patterns
    # that can have constraints are often broad without them.
    # We have no solutions at all:
    return @solutions if @solutions.empty?

    if !pattern.optional?
      # We have no solutions for variables we should have solutions for:
      need_vars = pattern.variables.keys
      @solutions.each do |solution|
        break if need_vars.empty?
        need_vars -= solution.bindings.keys
      end
      return Query::Solutions() unless need_vars.empty?
    end
  end
  @solutions.each(&block) if block_given?
  @solutions
end

- (Boolean) failed?

Returns true if this query did not match when last executed.

When the solution sequence is empty, this method can be used to determine whether the query failed to match or not.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

See Also:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 379

def failed?
  @solutions.empty?
end

- (Boolean) matched?

Returns true if this query matched when last executed.

When the solution sequence is empty, this method can be used to determine whether the query matched successfully or not.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

See Also:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 391

def matched?
  !failed?
end

- (Boolean) named?

Is this query scoped to a named graph?

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 404

def named?
  !!options[:context]
end

- (RDF::Query) optimize(options = {})

Returns an optimized copy of this query.

Parameters:

  • options (Hash{Symbol => Object}) (defaults to: {})

    any additional options for optimization

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 238

def optimize(options = {})
  self.dup.optimize!(options)
end

- optimize!(options = {})

This method returns an undefined value.

Optimizes this query by reordering its constituent triple patterns according to their cost estimates.

Parameters:

  • options (Hash{Symbol => Object}) (defaults to: {})

    any additional options for optimization

See Also:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 251

def optimize!(options = {})
  @patterns.sort! do |a, b|
    (a.cost || 0) <=> (b.cost || 0)
  end
  self
end

- pattern(pattern, options = {})

This method returns an undefined value.

Appends the given query pattern to this query.

Parameters:

Options Hash (options):

  • :optional (Boolean) — default: false

    whether this is an optional pattern

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 226

def pattern(pattern, options = {})
  @patterns << Pattern.from(pattern, options)
  self
end

- (Boolean) query_yields_boolean?

Query results in a boolean result (e.g., ASK)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/sparql-35fb6f2e7092/lib/sparql/algebra/extensions.rb', line 265

def query_yields_boolean?
  false
end

- (Boolean) query_yields_solutions?

Query results solutions (e.g., SELECT)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/sparql-35fb6f2e7092/lib/sparql/algebra/extensions.rb', line 277

def query_yields_solutions?
  true
end

- (Boolean) query_yields_statements?

Query results statements (e.g., CONSTRUCT, DESCRIBE, CREATE)

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/sparql-35fb6f2e7092/lib/sparql/algebra/extensions.rb', line 271

def query_yields_statements?
  false
end

- (SPARQL::Algebra::Expression) rewrite(&block)

Don't do any more rewriting

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/sparql-35fb6f2e7092/lib/sparql/algebra/extensions.rb', line 250

def rewrite(&block)
  self
end

- (Array) to_sxp_bin

Transform Query into an Array form of an SSE

If Query is named, it's treated as a GroupGraphPattern, otherwise, a BGP

Returns:

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/sparql-35fb6f2e7092/lib/sparql/algebra/extensions.rb', line 259

def to_sxp_bin
  res = [:bgp] + patterns.map(&:to_sxp_bin)
  (context ? [:graph, context, res] : res)
end

- (Boolean) unnamed?

Is this query unscoped? This indicates that it can return results from either a named graph or the default graph.

Returns:

  • (Boolean)

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 417

def unnamed?
  options[:context].nil?
end

- validate!

This method returns an undefined value.

Validate this query, making sure it can be executed by our query engine. This method is public so that it may be called by implementations of RDF::Queryable#query_execute that bypass our built-in query engine.

Raises:

  • (ArgumentError)

    This query cannot be executed.

Since:

  • 0.3.0



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# File 'vendor/bundler/ruby/2.1.0/bundler/gems/rdf-b5b2fcc48298/lib/rdf/query.rb', line 467

def validate!
  # Our first pattern, if it exists, cannot be an optional pattern.
  if @patterns.length > 0 && @patterns[0].optional?
    raise ArgumentError.new("Query must not begin with an optional pattern")
  end

  # All optional patterns must appear after the regular patterns.  We
  # could test this more cleanly using Ruby 1.9-specific features, but
  # we want to run under Ruby 1.8, too.
  i = 0
  i += 1 while i < @patterns.length && !@patterns[i].optional?
  while i < @patterns.length
    unless @patterns[i].optional?
      raise ArgumentError.new("Optional patterns must appear at end of query")
    end
    i += 1
  end

  nil
end